Appendix A – Ajax

Ajax is a family of tracked armoured vehicles that will enter service with the British Army to replace the seventies era Combat Vehicle Reconnaissance (Tracked) family.

It is derived from Spanish/Austrian ASCOD Infantry Fighting Vehicle.

Variants

Ajax has a number of variants and within those variants, a number of roles.

The current planned production quantities are as follows:

Previous Designation Quantity New Designation Quantity
SV SCOUT Reconnaissance and Strike 198 Ajax – Ajax Reconnaissance and Strike 198
SV SCOUT Joint Fire Control 23 Ajax – Ajax Joint Fire Control 23
SV SCOUT Ground Based Surveillance 24 Ajax –`Ajax Ground Based Surveillance 24
SV PMRS Armoured Personnel Carrier 59 Ajax – Ares 93
SV PMRS Formation Reconnaissance Overwatch 34
SV PMRS Command and Control 112 Ajax – Athena 112
SV PMRS Engineer Reconnaissance 51 Ajax – Argus 51
SV EQUIPMENT SUPPORT Recovery 38 Ajax – Atlas 38
SV EQUIPMENT SUPPORT Repair 50 Ajax – Apollo 50
Total 589   589

Ajax

‘Greek hero notable for strength and courage’

Ajax is the turreted variant of Ajax, bear with me!

It comprises three roles, Reconnaissance and Strike; Joint Fire Control and Ground Based Surveillance.

Joint Fire Control will be used to coordinate land and sea based ‘artillery’ and air delivered munitions. The Ground Based Surveillance role will utilise a ground surveillance radar used dismounted from the vehicle. It will not be integrated with the vehicle, unlike CVR(T) and TRACER.

All have a crew of 3 and an additional seat in the rear compartment that is used for ammunition stowage and electronic equipment.

Ares

‘God of war’

Ares provides protected mobility for up to 4 dismounted personnel and a crew of 2.

Apollo

‘God of healing’

Apollo provides repair capability in conjunction with Atlas. It can tow a high mobility trailer that carries spare power packs, has a 5 tonne capacity telescoping jib crane that can lift the Ajax powerpack, stabilisation system, auxiliary power unit and a range of repair equipment. The crane can also lift out its own powerpack.

Atlas

‘God who carried the world’

Atlas is fitted with a 300kn main winch and 8kn secondary winch, and an earth anchor and is used primarily for recovering other members of the Ajax family. It has a crew of 3.

Argus

‘all seeing giant’

Argus is the combat engineering reconnaissance and will be fitted with specialist computing equipment, lane marking equipment, a demountable dozer blade and systems to measure slope and gap width. It has a crew of 2 and can carry four dismounted personnel.

Pearson Engineering – Obstacle Marker System (OMS) – Generic – V1

Athena

‘Greek Goddess of intelligence, battle strategy and wisdom’

With a crew of 5, Athena provides the ‘on the move’ command and control function and will be fitted with a range of displays and computing systems and silent auxiliary power unit.

Weights and Measures

Ajax is 7.62m long, and 3.53m wide. Height depends on variant, the turreted versions are 3m high without antenna and RWS.

The layout is driver in the hull next to the powerpack/transmission with a 2-man turret containing a gunner and commander. Seating is available in crew compartment for a couple of passengers. The non-turreted variants have a crew of between two and four with some having seating for additional passengers.

Combat weight is reported to be 34 tonnes and the vehicle is rated to 38 tonnes with a defined potential for 42 tonnes maximum weight. At a Gross Vehicle Weight of 38 tonnes, the power to weight ratio is 21 HP/tonne that enables a top speed of 70kph and good acceleration.

Maximum range is reported to be 500km.

Protection is reported to be very high, both against ballistic threats, HEAT type warheads and explosives/mines, although (rightly) no details have been released.

Appliqué protection can be added to increase protection, especially on the hull sides.

Permali will provide composite panels for Ajax in a £15 million contract.

Weapons

Lockheed Martin ae responsible for the Ajax turret. The turret structure is manufactured by Rheinmetall Defence under a €130 million contract for the production of 245 Turret Structure and Weapons Mount (TSWM) and integration of the 40mm CTA Cannon.

The turret is based on the Lance Modular Turret.

Meggitt provide the ammunition handling systems. Under a £27.2 million contract. Curtiss Wright provide the Turret Drive Servo System (TDSS) that provides 2 axis stabilisation and turret aiming under a £32 million contract.

The turret is armed with the 40mm Cased Telescoped Weapon System from CTA International (see separate Appendix)

In addition to the 40mm main weapon, Ajax is fitted with a coaxial Heckler & Koch L94A1 7.62 mm chain gun.

Under a £61 million contract Kongsberg will supply Protector Remote Weapon Station (RWS) armed with a 7.62mm General Purpose Machine Gun (GPMG).

The protector RWS will be fitted to all variants but when fitted to the turreted variant, the Orion primary sight removed, it is either/or, not

The UK has also trialled a Protector RWS with a Javelin missile fit, on a CVR(T) Spartan, this may well end up meeting the overwatch role but obviously without the Orion sight.

Sensors, Systems and Self Defence

Ajax is a vehicle packed full of electronics to enable it to perform its role, it needs great sensors and a means of distributing and managing the deluge of information generated by them.

A £125 million contract covered sighting systems and ancillary equipment including the Orion primary sight, local situational awareness cameras and 76mm smoke dischargers.

The Orion is described as:

Orion provides the armoured vehicle commander with a stabilised panoramic sight for long-range surveillance and target identification, independent of turret orientation. Stabilisation enables on-the-move surveillance and weapon engagement and a wide area surveillance (WAS) mode provides a rapid overview of the surroundings. Enhancement options include automated target detection, tracking, and a laser target designator.

It is fully stabilised, has 360o continuous rotation, long range and wide angle sensors, Gigabit Ethernet interface, high definition resolutions and automated target detection/tracking. The main sensor is a Thales Catherine MP IR Camera. It also has a Video Eyesafe Laser Transceiver (VELT) laser rangefinder.

A separate £54 million contract covered gunnery sights. The DNGS-T3 Stabilised Day/Night Gunnery Sight is stabilised, fitted with two HD sensors, thermal imager, eye safe laser rangefinder and a Gigabit Ethernet interface.

Acoustic sensors and laser/infra-red warning receivers are also fitted, the latter from Elbit Systems. E-LAWS detects and classifies threats, warns the crew and initiates countermeasures such as multi-spectral smoke. It has also been reported that Ajax is fitted with an IR jammer.

The sensor data has to be processed, manipulated, stored and transmitted.

GE automation have received two contracts, one for £3.25 million and the other for £64 million for embedded computing systems and video switches, Ethernet switches, gateway processors, data servers and video servers.

These subsystems provide the backbone of the vehicle electronics architecture. The Ethernet switch connects all the networked elements of the vehicle together; the gateway processor provides all the processing capability for the General Dynamics UK software to run the platform; and the data and video servers allow the vehicle to store and distribute vehicle and scenario data and video around the platform and on into the wider connected battlefield. The GE offering took advantage of two unique GE capabilities. GE’s close working relationship with NVIDIA and its expertise in developing and deploying rugged GPU technology enabled a solution to be proposed that uniquely met the SWaP (size, weight and power) constraints of the requirement. GE was also able to propose the use of its OpenWare switch software, which allowed the operation of the vehicle’s network to be optimized to the specific requirements of the platform.

It is a bespoke solution but based on existing commercial products like single board computers Ethernet switches.

ViaSat, in a £3.8m contract, will supply encrypted storage systems.

ViaSat has developed the only hardware based data encryption technology that is CAPS approved by CESG, the accreditation arm of the UK government, for the protection of Top Secret data at rest.[1] By customising this technology it can provide a system suited to the needs of the Scout SV. To help ensure the long-term viability of the platform, the Specialist Vehicle Encryption and Purge Solution will be modular, able to be switched out as needed, and can be upgraded together with the Scout SV open, scalable electronic architecture.

The system also includes purge controls to delete data encryption keys, making data irrecoverable in the event of enemy capture without having to expend extra time and resources on its destruction. The storage system has been designed to form the basis of future Scout SV variants and other vehicle programmes, thus reducing the requirement and risks for UK development expenditure.

The system is the same as that used on the Wildcat helicopter and Watchkeeper T-UAS.

The sighting system data sharing platform is PrismTech’s Vortex OpenSplice. OpenSplice is an implementation of the Object Management Group’s Data Distribution Service (OMG DDS) standard. It is a middleware software application used on real-time embedded servers and will be used to share information between crew stations, recording and replay of that information at very high speeds.

Vortex OpenSplice provides device-to-device data sharing in real time – secure, reliable delivery of voluminous data. Vortex is a comprehensive and intelligent data-sharing platform for highly distributed real-time systems such as those found in aerospace and defense. The Thales Sights and associated image processing units are part of a real-time network that communicates via DDS. Vortex OpenSplice provides the dependable communication means in this complex environment enabling the full power of the Thales subsystems to be realised. All the complexity built into these vehicles calls for a solution that will integrate the various systems smoothly and seamlessly.

Taken together, these are the engine of the Ajax of electronic system.

Esterline (formerly Barco) provide the display systems for driver, commander, gunner and other crew. Supplied under £13.5 million contract the rugged display terminals are specifically designed for harsh conditions and for night vision compatibility.

The Codis TX-335S turret crew-station displays gun control, local situational awareness, logistics and system information on a 13” backlit 1600×1200 display panel with 20 programmable function keys. The driver is provided with a Codis TX-321S triple-head display, the three 8” screens providing a resolution of 3072×768. Codis VPU-101 video-processing units delivers aggregation, manipulation and distribution of IP based video using a 10Gbs optical network connectivity.

Esterline also supply the Racal Acoustics RA195 iCombat high noise headsets.

Navigation systems will be provided by Honeywell. The TALIN inertial land navigation features ring laser-gyro and accelerometers to provide accurate positioning information, supported by GPS, but not wholly reliant on it.

Communication between and power to the systems within the turret and the base vehicle is via a slip ring produced by Moog.

The Vitavox OUTACOM public address system will enables direct communication from inside the vehicle at a range of up to 300m.

The PA system is designed to be used like a loud hailer, allowing the vehicle commander, and other authorised personnel, the tactical ability to communicate up to 300 metres from the vehicle, while remaining safe within.

The system will be integrated with each of the Ajax variants.

Kent Periscopes will supply the drivers hatch periscope, turret periscopes and the commander’s auxiliary sight.

Kent Periscopes Ltd featured on BBC News following U.K.'s defence spending announcement

Smiths Detection systems provide Ajax with a chemical attack warning system under a £6m contract. Vehicle integration uses the Auto Inlet Module (AIM) and the LCD can be remotely operated. Although the system will operate from vehicle power supplies, it can also be its own batteries. The LCD 3.3 system features a high sensitivity sensor to detect a wide range of chemical weapons.

To improve gunnery accuracy a meteorological sensor mast and analysis system will be fitted.

Raytheon will supply the power management and distribution system including the Power Switch Node (PSN) that provides 16 channels of solid state power switching controlled by the data bus.

In a £17m contract, Williams F1 Advanced Engineering will provide the Core Infrastructure Distribution System (CIDS). CIDS provides a ring of power, data and signalling lines throughout the vehicle, one for the turret and one for the hull, with the Moog slip ring providing connectivity between the two.

This approach has resulted in a 20% weight saving and is is compliant with GVA. CIDS ring sections come in a series connected lengths that make troubleshooting and replacement easier with connection nodes at regular intervals.

Connecting some of these systems is a wiring harness by Rockford under a £20m contract shared with Warrior CSP.

Ajax will come into service with the BOWMAN communication system and retrofitted with MORPHEUS (BOWMAN replacement) in due course.

Automotive

The Ajax powerpack will be the V8 15.9 Litre Rolls Royce/MTU 8V199 diesel engine supplied under a £58m contract. The 8V 199 TE21 engine is the same fitted to Boxer but has been upgraded to deliver 600 kW (800 HP). Rolls Royce/MTU will also provide the cooling system and two 550A generators per engine. A Renk 256B automatic transmission delivers power to the tracks and has 6 forward and 5 reverse gears.

Suspension is of standard torsion bar and hydraulic damper design and the TR40 505FB double pin tracks are from Cook Defence Systems.

Oxley Group provide the internal lighting including DC Combi LED interior lights and Gooseneck task lights under a £1 million contract

Saab will provide their Mobile Camouflage System (MCS) for Ajax.

Saab Barracuda – Multi-Spectral Advanced Camouflage [1080p]

Saab Barracuda's Mobile Camouflage System (MCS)

Training

The training solution for Ajax will make extensive use of virtual systems. XPI Simulation, a Thales company, and Marshall Aerospace and Defence Group will produce 28 full motion simulators under a £20 million contract.

The full training system will provide:

Crew Turret Trainer (CTT): Developed by Lockheed Martin UK, in partnership with General Dynamics Land Systems–UK, the CTT is self-contained within a 20-foot ISO container and includes a representative AJAX turret, which will replicate its systems and their functionality within a static, physical environment.  All sensor views are simulated and the crews will operate in an immersive synthetic environment.  The CTT consolidates classroom-based training in an environment that reflects the experience of the real vehicle.  The first CTT will be showcased on the General Dynamics stand at DSEI.

Full Motion Driver Training Simulator (FMDTS): Developed by XPI, in partnership with General Dynamics Land Systems–UK, the FMDTS is a classroom-based, full-motion, 6 Degrees of Freedom (6DoF), fully-immersive driver simulator.  The trainee drivers will be able to experience the full performance of driving AJAX over different types of terrain and in different scenarios.

Maintenance Trainer Electrical (MTE) – Hull and Turret: Developed by Pennant Training Solutions, in partnership with General Dynamics Land Systems–UK, the MTE is a workshop-based trainer, which will support the training of British Army soldiers in the conduct of L2/3 maintenance on AJAX platforms.

This is the first system to be fully compliant with MOD’s Defence, Training and Education Coherence (DTEC) rule set.

Videos

Showing the progress of Ajax, with ASCOD and SV Scout inbetween.

General Dynamics – Future Rapid Effects System Specialist Vehicles (FRES SV) [480p]

General Dynamics UK – Scout Specialist Vehicle (SV) Overview [480p]

General Dynamics UK – Scout Specialist Vehicle (SV) Simulation [720p]

General Dynamics United Kingdom – ASCOD Scout SV Presentation [480p]

Defence Vehicle Dynamics 2014 – General Dynamics UK debuts new Scout Specialist Vehicle (Scout SV) P

General Dynamics

DSEI 2015: General Dynamics Land Systems UK Scout SV is named Ajax

AJAX – the future of Armoured Fighting Vehicles

The British Army's New AJAX Armoured Fighting Vehicle

General Dynamics AJAX on first public display

British Army Ajax Unloading Before Tank 100


British Army Medium Weight Capability – Table of Contents

Introduction and Notes

What this document is, sources and acknowledgements, and what this document is not

The Fifties and Sixties

Saladin and Saracen enter service, early work on their replacement commences and completes. The FV432 enters service, and the BMP-1 does likewise, work on Warrior gains pace.

The Seventies

CVR(T) and CVR(W) enter service, and the rapid deployment concept cuts its teeth with the C-130

The Eighties

CVR(T) continues to be developed and sees action in in the Falkland Islands and Warrior enters service. Oh, and Saxon.

The Nineties

A decade of major change; the end of the Cold War, operations in the Gulf and the Balkans. The microprocessor and communications revolution. VERDI, FFLAV, WASAD and the rise of the acronym in defence. ASCOD, CV90 and others developed. Protected mobility becomes a requirement, again, and finally, interesting materials development make an appearance in the defence vehicle world.

TRACER, MRAV and Project Bushranger

Three vehicle development projects that would have importance to the ongoing story of developing a medium weight capability.

Turning Points in the Balkans

Important milestones in the development of medium weight capabilities, a trip across the Sava and WWIII averted at an airport.

Change Comes to US and UK Forces

The Future Combat System, the UK follows suit, FRES and being a force for good.

FRES Gets into Gear but Iraq Looms Large

2001 to 2004, TRACER and MRAV continue but the new kid on the block called FRES is starting to take over whilst the shadow of Iraq falls on the project.

Snatch and the Trials of Truth

Between 2005 and 2007 the Army experienced significant change. FRES picked up speed but operations in Iraq overshadowed the medium weight concept.

FRES Changes Names and Changes Lane

2008 to 2009, it becomes increasingly difficult to balance the needs of operations with the desire to transform and bring FRES to fruition at the same time.

FRES Scout to the End of FRES

2010 to 2011, putting the embarrassment of FRES UV behind it, the Army switches to FRES SV, a replacement for CVR(T)

Return to Contingency

2012 to 2014, as an end to the Afghanistan deployment drew near, Scout continued and attention turned to Warrior.

AJAX to MIV and the Emergence of Strike

2015 to 2017, a new medium weight capability vision emerges, and this requires a new vehicle, the Mechanised Infantry Vehicle (MIV), but before that, Multi Role Vehicle (MRV).

Observations

A few thoughts and opinions.

Appendix A – Ajax

Weights, measures, variants and roles

Appendix B – 40mm Cased Telescoped Weapon System

A revolution in medium calibre weapons, but can we afford it?

Appendix C – Generic Vehicle Architecture

The essential glue that binds the increasing quantity of vehicle electronics



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