Tomahawk Land Attack Cruise Missile (TLAM)

The Tomahawk IV, known in the Royal Navy as TLAM (Tomahawk Land Attack Cruise Missile) allows submarines to strike at ground targets many miles inland

The Royal Navy website describes the Tomahawk as;

The Tomahawk IV – known in the Royal Navy as TLAM (Tomahawk Land Attack Cruise Missile) – allows submarines to strike at ground targets hundreds of miles inland with pinpoint accuracy. The missile has been in use with the Submarine Service since the late 1990’s. Tomahawk IV is the latest version of the missile. It has a longer range than its predecessors (well in excess of 1,000 miles), can be directed at a new target in mid-flight, and can also beam back images of the battlefield to its mother submarine.

Although only available in relatively small numbers, it is a highly effective weapon that has been used in operations in the Balkans, Middle East and Libya, and provides the UK with a weapon of strategic value well beyond the small numbers available.

Tomahawk Land Attack Missile ( Cruise Missile) (TLAM) flying through the air. 12/04/2000

Tomahawk Land Attack Cruise Missile (TLAM) History

Discussion about the Royal Navy purchasing a land attack cruise missile started to take place at about the same time as the RAF’s CASOM (Storm Shadow) was being progressed, the mid-nineties. The MoD had recognised that an aircraft delivered cruise missile might not always provide the optimal solution and the covert approach afforded by a submarine would provide a powerful complement to CASOM.

The Tomahawk Land Attack Cruise Missile has a long history but briefly, it was initiated as a long range anti-ship missile in the seventies under the direction of the US Navy Admiral Zumwalt, who, despite resistance, insisted the missile be capable of being fired from a standard submarine torpedo tube. The first of the family was the Tomahawk Anti-Ship Missile (TASM), becoming operational in 1982/3. TASM was followed by TLAM, the Tomahawk Land Attack Missile.

The first Block III Tomahawk missile entered service with the US Navy in 1993, it had increased range, a more powerful warhead and GPS navigation. At the same time as the Block III missiles were entering service, the Block IV missiles were in development.

With the Air Hawk, essentially, a cut-down Block III Tomahawk, on offer for the CASOM requirement, there were many incentives to merge the RAF and RN requirements but it was not to be. The RAF and RN diverged, the Royal Navy entered into negotiations for Tomahawk and the RAF continued with CASOM, a requirement that would be met by Storm Shadow.

In 1995, an initial batch of 65 Block III TLAM was ordered by the MoD in 1995 under a £180 million US FMS deal. Loral also received a $60m contract for the combat system integration modifications for seven submarines, with Vickers Shipbuilding acting as a partner.

Integration continued and in 1998 the first firing on Tomahawk from a Royal Navy submarine took place off San Diego, HMS Splendid doing the honours.

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On her return from first of class Tomahawk trials in March 1999, HMS Splendid was diverted and carried out the first UK operational use of Tomahawk on the 24th March, as part of operations in Kosovo.

A follow-on order of 30 TLAM were ordered in 1999 to replace those expended during operations against the former Yugoslavia. By this time, production of the Block III had ceased and so the order was provisioned by upgrading US Navy stocks.

Full Operational Capability (FOC) was achieved in 2001, in August the third Royal Navy submarine to be equipped for Tomahawk completed its test firing, HMS Trafalgar. This was also the first firing from a Royal Navy submarine equipped with the new Submarine Command System (SMCS) and US/UK version of the Advanced Tomahawk Weapon Control System software.

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HMS Trafalgar and HMS Triumph fired a number of Tomahawk cruise missiles during the opening night of operations against Al Qaida in Afghanistan on the 7th and 8th of October 2001. Further firings also took place on the 13th

In December 2001, the MoD ordered 48 Block IIIC TLAM missiles to replenish stocks.

Because the Block IV Tactical Tomahawk was not available with a Torpedo Tube Launch (TTL) option, Raytheon and the MoD jointly funded development work to adapt the Block III TTL, contract value $27m. The Block IV missile in US Navy service was designed for vertical launch only, either from a Mk 41 VLS or submarine vertical launch tube. The USN had originally wanted a TTL launch version of the Tactical Tomahawk but it was dropped to save cost.

Block IV TLAM included a two-way data link, lower cost William’s turbojet, additional fuel and new sensors.

The first test firing of a Block IV TLAM took place in July 2007, from HMS Trenchant.

Lord Drayson commented;

This test is a very significant milestone which gives a tangible demonstration of our ability to deliver precision attack at long range against selected targets, they will give the Royal Navy a world class capability and the ability to pre-position the missile covertly in our attack submarines gives enormous flexibility to our forces.

The system was declared operational soon after, in 2008.

HMS Triumph fired a number of TLAM during Operation ELLAMY in 2011, reportedly, 12.

A Parliamentary Question revealed the cost of Tomahawk cruise missiles;

Equivalent values for each of the Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) Block III and TLAM Block IV surface-to-surface missiles fired over the same period are £1,100,000 and £870,000 respectively. All of the figures are inclusive of VAT.

Also in 2011, HMS Astute, first of class, fired a Tomahawk missile on a US test range.

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A small number were purchased in 2014/15, exact numbers have not been confirmed.

Tomahawk has been through a veritable alphabet of variations, it is a mature weapon system. Because of this maturity, there have been many attempts at making space for a replacement by winding down production but recently, there has been somewhat of a resurgence in interest. The last few years have seen different payloads (including ECM) trialled, a return to the anti-ship capability and continual improvements in data link and sensor technologies, much of this in response to US strategic initiatives.

Nevertheless, production was still planned to be ceased this year and despite intervention from Congress, may well happen. Funding for its replacement, Next Generation Land Attack Weapon (NGLAW), has been extremely small.

Despite this, the US Navy will enter into a contract for the remanufacture and re-certification of their Block IV inventory. Each missile must undergo a 15-year certification, and the first of these are planned for 2019. It is thought that this process may be an ideal time to introduce much of the newer technology solutions now available, so in effect, it becomes not only a recertification programme but an upgrade programme as well.

There is no news on whether the Royal Navy stocks of Block IV missiles will be included in this programme but it would be logical to assume it would do, the UK’s Block IV weapons will have wound down their 15-year clock by about 2022/23, inconveniently, a few years after the USN recertification period.

UK plans for Tomahawk remain unclear and whether it was deliberate or accidental, the release of information for the Future Cruise and Anti-Ship Weapon (FCASW) omits any mention of Tomahawk.

Tomahawk Land Attack Cruise Missile (TLAM) Capabilities

The best simple description for the Royal Navy TLAM is from Frazer Nash, the organisation that developed the safety case;

Both Block III and Block IV are winged, high-subsonic speed missiles which provide the submarine with an attack capability against a variety of land targets.  The missiles include a warhead, solid-propellant rocket motor, cruise engine, and various underwater protection devices.  The missiles are contained within steel capsules, which also serve as smooth bore launching devices when loaded into the submarine torpedo tube, from which the missiles are horizontally launched.

They go on;

Route planning, initialisation of the missile, downloading of data to, and launch of RN TLAM is controlled by the Tomahawk Weapon Control System (TWCS), which interfaces with the submarine Weapon Handling and Launch System, and the submarine Fire Control Equipment. At launch RN TLAM is ejected from the steel capsule held within the submarine torpedo tube.  When the missile is clear from the submarine, a lanyard initiates the firing circuit for the rocket motor.  The guidance system is programmed to pitch the missile nose up using Thrust Vector Control (TVC) on the rocket motor nozzle.

The underwater protection devices consist of two jettisonable wing slot plugs, an engine inlet cover and continuity shrouds.   These devices prevent the entry of seawater into the missile during underwater launch.  After broach, the missile jettisons the engine inlet cover, wing plugs and the shrouds between the missile and rocket motor allowing the fins to deploy.

Upon reaching a set velocity, the engine inlet and wings are deployed and the shaped trajectory auto-pilot is activated.  Once the rocket motor thrust has decayed, the rocket motor is jettisoned, and the cruise engine is initiated. The missile then descends to cruise altitude and is guided to the target by the guidance unit.


One of the most prominent characteristics of TLAM is its accuracy.  TLAM can fly 1000 miles and hit a target the size of a garage.  In addition to this capability, the missiles are also very effective at evading detection due to their low altitude flight path which is beyond the range of most radar systems.  The four different systems that help guide TLAM are briefly described in the following paragraphs.

Inertial Guidance System (IGS); The IGS is an acceleration-based system that can keep track (approximately) of where the missile is, based on the accelerations it detects in the missile’s motion.

Terrain Contour Matching (TERCOM); TERCOM uses an onboard 3D database of the terrain the missile will be flying over.  The TERCOM system compares its stored set of digital maps with the ground elevation readings supplied by the missile’s radar altimeter.  The TERCOM system is what enables TLAM to sustain a low altitude flight path.

Global Positioning System Subsystem (GPSS); A Global Positioning System Subsystem (GPSS) is used to perform periodic navigational updates to the missile.  The GPSS receives signals from GPS satellites, processes the signals, and provides navigational data to the Cruise Missile Guidance Set (CMGS). This ability to receive GPS navigational data provides flexibility and higher reliability in accomplishing mission objectives.

Digital Scene Matching Area Correlation (DSMAC); Once the missile approaches its target, the missile switches to a terminal guidance system to determine the impact point.  Stored digitised images or scenes are used to perform terminal updates.  A sensor in the DSMAC set takes a visible wavelength image of the ground features, digitises the images and then compares them with the stored digitised images.

Then it goes bang, with a 1,000-pound unitary warhead, that was my bit!.

Royal Navy TLAM


Table of Contents

RN TLAM 4 Introduction
MBDA Brimstone layout on Tornado Brimstone
MBDA SPEAR 3 Image 2 SPEAR Capability 3
RAF Tornado GR4's at RAF Akrotiri Cyprus being armed with the Paveway IV Laser Guided Bomb. Paveway IV
Tornado Storm Shadow Storm Shadow
Royal Navy Submarine HMS Astute Fires a Tomahawk Cruise Missile (TLAM) During Testing Near the USA Tomahawk
FASGW(H) Missile Sea Venom
Lightweight Multirole Missile (LMM) Martlet (Lightweight Multirole Missile)
HMS Montrose fires Harpoon Harpoon
F-35 UK Weapons Trials November 2014 ASRAAM & PAVEWAY IV shot 2 ASRAAM
RAF Typhoon Aircraft Carrying Meteor Missiles Meteor BVRAAM
Soldier Mans Starstreak HVM High Velocity Missile System During Exercise Olympic Guardian for London 2012 Starstreak HVM
Sea Ceptor missile system FLAADS(M) Common Anti-Air Modular Missile (CAMM)
Sea Viper HMS Defender Type 45 Live Fire Sea Viper/ASTER
Fire Shadow Loitering Munition Fire Shadow Loitering Munition
The final pre-acceptance trial of the GMLRS (Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System) at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, USA. Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System (GMLRS)
Spike NLOS Tracked Vehicle Exactor (SPIKE NLOS)
Pictured are elements of the Manoeuvre Support Group MSG from 42 Commando Royal Marines, based at Bickleigh Barracks Plymouth, whilst conducting live firing of the new Light Forces Anti-Tank Guided Weapon (LFATGW) Javelin. 42 Commando Royal Marines were the first UK Armed Force to live fire the new Javelin system. The live fire demonstration was an early opportunity to see the Javelin being live fired in the UK. The future reliance on simulation,rather than live firing will mean that a demonstration such as this will be a rare event in the UK during the service life of the system. This image was submitted as part of the Peregrine 06 Photographic Competition. This image is available for non-commercial, high resolution download at subject to terms and conditions. Search for image number 45145988.jpg ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Photographer: PO (PHOT) Sean Clee Image 45145988.jpg from Javelin Anti-Tank Guided Weapon (ATGW)
NLAW Training Aid Next Generation Light Anti-Armour Weapon (NLAW)
Raytheon Defender Laser CIWS Lasers
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May 20, 2016 8:25 am

Any bets on buying the VLS launched variant for the Type 26s?

shark bait
May 20, 2016 10:15 am

It seems a natural choice, but no doubt funding will be the issue. I suppose the inclusion of the Mk41 allows us to mature the T26 over time by adding these extra capabilities over time.

We really need something to go in them. At the moment we plan to have a lot of silos, but no missiles to fill them with.

The Other Nick
The Other Nick
May 20, 2016 3:41 pm

As a modern day V1 is the subsonic TLAM worth investing in, back in 1944 the defences were shooting down 80% of the V1s and seventy years later would have thought any modern defence system would be able to achieve near 100% success rate.

Three days ago SeaRAM Block 2 in testing took out targets in a variety of scenarios, one with two supersonic missiles inbound simultaneously, flying in complex, evasive maneuvers. Two days ago the Israeli released following video of the navy Iron Dome that can shoot down short-range ballistic missiles while aboard a moving ship.

stephen duckworth
May 20, 2016 6:16 pm

@ The Other Nick
On the Israelis strapping a land based launcher onto the deck of a ship to add a significant capability it would never work as so many commentators have professed on this very website……..hold on , it did work didn’t it ;-)

May 20, 2016 10:29 pm

@stephen duckworth

Well whoopy doo! The Israeli’s strapped a land based missile launcher to the deck of a ship in the relatively benign waters of the Med to test launch a system…

I am going to introduce you to a simple concept best defined by three simple words:

“Appropriate corrosion protection”

May 21, 2016 12:44 am

Though Iron Dome isn’t a land attack system.

There’s also the concept of “gyroscopic stabilization”. Don’t want your land attack missile, especially the dumb fired versions to fall short on the down swell. Soldiers tend to get very cranky when the artillery falls short. Wonder why? :)

Brian Black
Brian Black
May 21, 2016 6:59 am

I don’t know what Israel is up to, but that Iron Dome launcher could be a proof of concept that goes on to see the missile system fully navalized, integrated with a ship’s fire control, and launched from a vertical launch canister.

The Other Nick, any decent MANPADS today can shoot down a Tomahawk, you don’t need a particularly fancy air defence system. The only real defence it has is flying low to keep off radar and minimize it’s appearance to alert ground units; but that’s why the Americans want a replacement.

The only thing holding up a replacement is the available funding. A replacement should do pretty much the same thing, but at higher speed and with a lower radar signature. The replacement’s key defensive feature would likely still be to keep as low as possible.

There is also the possibility that the US will attempt to overcome some of the vulnerability of cruise missiles by revisiting the idea of ship/sub-launched short-range ballistic missiles. An ATACM was test launched from a MK41 launcher years ago, with a view to fielding a NATACMS (NAval TACtical Missile System). Obviously the 300km range limits the applications, but an ATACMS replacement is scheduled for the early ’20s. That could be an opportunity for a wider development.

The WWII V1 rockets flew a fair bit higher than a Tomahawk, to avoid obstacles as they had no navigational system, and were consequently very vulnerable to radar and air-intercept as well as AAA.

Brian Black
Brian Black
May 21, 2016 7:26 am

Observer, but how likely is it that we’d stick simple-ballistic unguided rockets onto Royal Navy ships nowadays?

Likely land attack missiles to find themselves on a RN frigate/destroyer would be a surface-launched Spear 3, and TLAM/FC&ASW.

You also wouldn’t necessarily need gyroscopic stabilisation of a dumb rocket launcher. A gyro sensor providing an input to the firing system should suffice – ie, you press the big red ‘fire’ button, and when the ship’s roll comes within acceptable margins, the rocket is released.

May 21, 2016 8:22 am

“but how likely is it that we’d stick simple-ballistic unguided rockets onto Royal Navy ships nowadays?”

Depends on your budget :)
But I get your point, self guided missiles are a lot more common these days and they can correct for any flight deviation.
Our (Fedaykin and I) point does also stand, it’s not as simple as slapping a box on deck and pressing a big red button.

Jeremy M H
May 21, 2016 9:16 pm

One expedient to get TLAM through, well actual a few I guess, is to pair them up with a swarm of MALD and MALD-J to both jam and saturate the target. Eventually you could also send CHAMP along to ride shotgun as well.

While TLAM is a fundamentally simple target in many (I would say most) scenarios where someone has the capability to shoot them down, i.e. an integrated defense system, it still isn’t that simple because they won’t just be tossing TLAM at you alone. You are going to be dealing with multiple issues at once. You don’t just get to fire up the S-300 and associated systems and deal with a dozen cruise missiles.

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