Martlet Lightweight Multirole Missile (LMM)
Martlet is the UK designation for the Thales Lightweight Multirole Missile, or LMM
The Thales Martlet is also called the Lightweight Multirole Missile, or LMM. It is described by Thales as;
LMM is a low cost, lightweight, precision strike, missile, which has been designed to be fired from tactical platforms including fixed or rotary winged UAV s and surface platforms. The system is designed to provide a rapid reaction to a wide range of the surface threats from wheeled or tracked vehicles, towed artillery or static installations; naval threats from small ships and fast inshore attack craft and an air threat from light aircraft
In UK service, it will arm the Royal Navy Wildcat helicopter.
Wildcat and LMM
Lightweight Multirole Missile
Martlet meets the Future Anti-Surface Guided Weapon (Light) requirement, FASGW(L)
Martlet LMM History
If Sea Skua was a response to missile-armed Soviet fast attack craft, Martlet is a response to the fast inshore attack craft (FIAC) threat as characterised by those operated by the Iranian Revolutionary Guard.
The Martlet missiles heritage goes back much further than that, though, and its origin is a surface to air missile, not air to surface missile. Javelin replaced Blowpipe and Javelin-S15 (Starburst) replaced Javelin, which was then replaced by Starstreak HVM, much of the technology has evolved into the Martlet Lightweight Multirole Missile. Instead of developing aerodynamic data for a new missile design, Thales used data from Starburst as the starting point, a cost-effective and wholly sensible approach.
2008 saw the FASGW(L) requirement emerge for the Royal Navy to counter the fast inshore attack craft (FIAC) threat.
The paper ‘Iran’s Naval Forces – From Guerilla Warfare to a Modern Naval Strategy‘ published in 2009 by the US Office of Naval Intelligence was seen by many as the significant point for Western forces appreciation of the threat but the Royal Navy and others had already started work and defined a number of requirements, FASGW(L) being one of them. Helicopters would continue to provide force protection but instead of the longer range and larger systems like Sea Skua or Hellfire/Brimstone, a smaller missile was required with pinpoint accuracy that could be used in typically restrictive Rules of Engagement environments. The FN Herstal M3M 12.7mm HMG, BAE Q-SIGHT GRSS and DRS Thermal Weapon Sight were also introduced to improve force protection and provide an element of ‘graduated response’
Whilst the M3M and sighting improvements were relatively easy and quick to integrate the FASGW(L) would take longer. A number of alternatives were investigated including guided 70mm rockets but one of the significant issues with this approach was their lack of manoeuvrability against a rapidly moving target and the Semi-Active Laser (SAL) seeker typically used had issues with low reflectivity targets i.e. black rubber boats.
After starting negotiations in 2005, in 2009, the Air Defence Availability Project (ADAPT) saw the MoD, Thales and MBDA agree on an availability contract that would see HVM/Starstreak and Rapier FSC to its out of service date in 2020. This contract also included the provision for new fire control and target tracking system.
The Thales part of the contract was worth £200 million, MBDA, £156 million.
Concept work continued with FASGW(L) and it became clear that the Semi-Automatic Command Line of Sight (SACLOS) Starstreak missile would form an ideal candidate. The laser beam-riding guidance system is impossible to jam and works with low reflectivity targets.
In 2011, Thales issued a press release;
Thales UK and the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) have today announced an innovative approach to contracting under the principles of Team Complex Weapons (TCW). The two parties have agreed to ‘re-role’ previously contracted budgets to facilitate the full-scale development, series production and introduction of the Lightweight Multi-role Missile (LMM) into service for UK Armed Forces.
“This is a clear demonstration of MoD and industry working in partnership…”
Specific activities covered under this contract amendment include:- design, development and qualification of the laser beam rider version of LMM, production of an initial delivery quantity of 1,000 LMM, precision-guidance system that will deliver a highly accurate performance against static and mobile targets and with low-collateral damage
The multi-role aspects of LMM mean that the UK will have the ability to use a single family of weapons to take on a variety of roles, including: maritime role – LMM will be integrated as the Future Anti-Surface Guided Weapon Light FASGW(L) missile on the new Wildcat Lynx helicopter platform under a parallel programme with the UK MoD. Ground-to-ground role – the dual-effect warhead of LMM (blast fragmentation and shaped charge) makes it suitable for a wide range of ground targets including light/medium armour; air-launched role – the modular design of the missile permits the future development and introduction of alternative warheads, seekers including a semi-active laser (SAL) version for precision strike surface attack roles;
Speaking at the announcement, David Beatty, Managing Director of Thales UK’s Belfast facility, where LMM will be manufactured, said: “This is a clear demonstration of MoD and industry working in partnership to ensure that we deliver the products that our Armed Forces require in a timely and affordable manner.”
“This contract also helps broaden our UK design, development and manufacturing capabilities that specialise in lightweight and short-range missiles, such as our Starstreak and VT1 air defence products and the NLAW anti-armour weapon.”
“LMM is unique in that it’s the first lightweight weapon family to be specially designed to have a wide range of operational roles. We firmly believe that this is what Armed Forces require now and in the future as it not only can provide adaptability in the battlefield but also major benefits in whole life costs by having one weapon family with a highly cost-effective associated logistic support.”
“We have already conducted preliminary marketing of LMM and I can confirm that there is a very high level of interest in this new family of missiles. The main interest is coming from land, sea and air platform suppliers who are keen to have the lightweight, low cost and operational versatility that LMM can deliver. This contract shows Thales delivering the innovation intended by Team CW. ”
Alan Nicholl, Director Weapons at the MoD’s Defence Equipment and Support organisation, said: “This is an excellent example of the objectives of Team CW at work. Such an innovative approach taken by Thales and the MoD to lightweight modular weapons will enhance the UK complex weapons industrial capability with a family of products designed to meet the requirements of both the UK and this dynamic export market sector. It is an excellent example of the UK’s export led industrial policy in action.”
This was the MoD making a value judgement about funding priorities, by shifting money already committed to Starstreak/HVM, it was judging the threat to Royal Navy shipping of greater and more imminent risk that ground-launched air defence threats against the British Army.
The MoD awarded a £90 million contract to Agusta Westland in 2014 to test, integrate and install both FASGW Light and Heavy missiles onto the Royal Navy’s 28 Wildcat helicopters.
Also in 2014, the £48 million Design and Manufacture contract for FASGW(L) LMM went to Thales, to complete development activity.
In addition to the helicopter launched variant for the MoD, Thales has been actively exploring other options. LMM has been seen on various UAV’s and in 2014, a tripod launched variant was tested in the Ground to Ground role. Thales has also partnered with MSI and integrated a multiple round LMM launcher with the 30mm Bushmaster cannon, the Seahawk SIGMA. The Turkish defence manufacturer, Aseslan, also has a partnership agreement with Thales. They have created a number of different naval pedestal launchers for LMM.
In order to meet the requirement for a very small precision munition for arming tactical UAV’s, Thales initiated some work on a freefall version of LMM and has developed the concept, showing it at recent defence exhibitions light aircraft and UAVs. In another partnership arrangement, Textron was marketing freefall LMM as the Fury.
In July 2016, Leonardo Helicopters awarded a contract to General Dynamics to upgrade the Stores Management System on Wildcat to enable control of Martlet and Sea Venom.
The scope of the contract included;
- Develop new safety-critical software to control the complex MIL-STD-1760 missile interfaces.
- Implement plug and play software architecture, which will significantly reduce the cost of integrating future weapons.
- Introduce hardware design changes to the existing SMS design to support two additional weapon stations on the helicopter.
- Design and manufacture a handheld test set to allow the helicopter electrical interfaces to be rapidly tested in conjunction with the SMS Built-in-Test capability.
- Re-test and certify the overall SMS functionality in accordance with UK safety standards DEF-STAN 0055/56.
- Update the existing in-service SMS equipment to the ‘FASGW’ standard.
Also in July 2016, the MoD announced financial support to MBDA and Leonardo to integrate Martlet and Sea Venom on legacy Lynx aircraft to enhance export opportunities.
Initial trials were planned to commence in Q4 2016 with an in-service target of 2018.
It was also recently announced that the British Army would integrate LMM with their Starstreak launch systems, namely the single canister launcher, Lightweight Multiple Launcher (LML) and FV433 Stormer vehicle. Thales will also integrate LMM with their Rapid Ranger vehicle mount and have proposed this for Warrior and Ajax.
In 2018, an additional £93 million contract was awarded to Thales for ongoing HVM and lightweight Multi-Role Missile (Martlet) support;
The project will enhance the High Velocity and Lightweight Multi-role Missile systems which are designed to intercept a wide range of air and surface threats such as enemy drones, helicopters and armoured vehicles. The upgrades include thermal imaging which ensures the High Velocity Missile system can be used 24 hours a day and ‘Friend or Foe’ identification, which will maximise intelligence on potential threats and targets.
In July 2019, the Royal Navy announced a successful series of test firings of the Martlet LMM from a 30mm gun mount, the Seahawk Sigma described below.
Thales working with MSI Defence, demonstrated the precision strike of the Lightweight Multirole Missile from the Type 23 frigate, HMS Sutherland. Working closely with ship staff and DE&S, the Thales/MSI team successfully engaged small unmanned surface targets closing the ship rapidly and manoeuvring.
After first proving that the gun could still fire accurately with the missile fitted – 120 rounds obliterated a large red ‘killer tomato’ target – and that the sensors behind LMM could track its radio-controlled foe at ranges of up to five kilometres.
Finally, four missiles were fired – one to test the effect of LMM ‘blasting off’ from its launcher on the gun mounting and the side of Sutherland (the missile accelerates to one and a half times the speed of sound in an instant), three packed with telemetry to measure the missile’s accuracy (ordinarily the weapon carries a 3kg warhead).
July 2019 was a busy month for Martlet LMM, the Royal Marines also completed a series of test firings from the 3 round lightweight multiple launcher (LML) and shoulder-fired launcher (the same launch devices that can also be used with the Starstreak HVM)
The Royal Navy, Leonardo and Thales progressed with Wildcat and Martlet integration through 2020, with the first firing taking place in May
The Initial Operating Capability milestone was achieved in late 2020, two years later than originally planned.
Martlet LMM Capabilities and Options
The Lightweight Multirole Missile (LMM) is pretty much as described.
It weighs 13kg, is 1.3m long and is 76mm in diameter (wingspan of 260mm). It flies at a maximum speed of Mach 1.5 and has a maximum range of 8km, minimum range is 400m, propelled by a two-stage rocket motor. The shaped charge fragmentation warhead weighs 3kg and is initiated by a laser proximity sensor in the nose.
Primary guidance utilises a laser beam riding system. The operator places the laser point on the target and sensors in the rear of the missile guide it in. A secondary semi-active laser homing facility is also available although it is not clear whether the version coming into service with the MoD will feature this guidance mode.
It is multi-role because it can be used in the air to ground role, as well as surface to surface and air to air. To reinforce its flexibility credentials, LMM can be launched from a variety of ground, sea and air vehicles and is also available in a freefall version.
For UK service, it will be contained in a multi-tube pylon assembly for Wildcat.
As Martlet/LMM has developed various iterations have been seen in images but the latest shows a row of three beneath a row of two, for a five missile per hardpoint arrangement. Although there are no plans for integration on Apache attack Helicopter it would provide a smaller warhead precision attack capability to bridge the gap between 30mm cannon and Hellfire/Brimstone/JAGM. This would also provide Apache with a counter UAS weapon.
Using powered LMM in the air to air role is a development of the various studies and development programmes that saw it arming Apache helicopters. One of the roles being focussed on now is that of Counter-UAS. The LMM is much lower cost than a traditional air to air missile and using the laser beam-riding guidance system reduces the impact of any countermeasures.
Arming an unmanned aircraft with LMM and a stabilised laser designation system will allow an unmanned aircraft to attack and destroy another unmanned aircraft.
For maritime applications, Thales has partnered with MSI and Aseslan in Turkey.
MSI has demonstrated a 7 missile launcher on their Seahawk SIGMA mount, a similar mount to that widely found on Royal Navy vessels, the Automated Small Calibre Gun (ASG). The LMM missiles would be used outside the range of the 30mm cannon or in situations where a guided weapon was deemed to provide the better option for target destruction.
Aseslan has developed the Missile Launching System (MSL) that carries four or eight LMM in a stabilised mount complete with an electro-optical sighting system.
ASESLAN MSL Test Fire
The maritime launcher from ASESLAN has now completed all qualification firings.
Although Thales completed much of the initial development work on Freefall LMM, their partnership with Textron has allowed them to integrate the Textron tri-mode fuse (point, airburst, and delay) and GPS/INS guidance module.
The 6kg, 680mm long freefall LMM, once marketed as Fury by Textron, is a very small guided munition that allows ISTAR focussed lightweight RPAS and aircraft to carry offensive capability, thus allowing them to attack fleeting targets of opportunity, light vehicles or mortar/rocket firing positions for example.
Freefall munitions also provide a wider engagement envelope than forward-firing types, to the side or behind for example.
A single standard weapon rail can carry three Freefall LMM in a low drag tandem mounting although other configurations have also been shown, 2×3 for example.
From 10,000ft, it reportedly has a range of between 4 and 5km.
Freefall LMM/Fury is typically used against soft-skinned vehicles and similar targets and Textron have indicated up to 24 could be carried on a Reaper UAS.
In the ground launch role, LMM can make use of any of the launching systems used for the Starstreak High-Velocity Missile. Thales has demonstrated firing an LMM from the Stormer HVM system, Thor, and later Rapid Ranger launch turrets equipped with an Ultra Electronics servo system. Thor became the Multi-Mission System.
Although the UK has not formally expressed an interest in the ground-launched role the emerging small UAS threat may yet see that change.
The smaller Rapid Ranger launch system is small and light enough to be mounted on 4×4 type vehicles. Although the LMM does not pack the same punch as the larger Javelin/Hellfire/Brimstone it is relatively cheap and with the smaller warhead, better suited to some targets, a sniper team in a built-up area for example.
LMM can also be fired from the Lightweight Multiple Launcher
LMM is self evidently a flexible and versatile weapon, and the ability to be fired from the same launch systems as HVM only increases that flexibility.
To wrap up, this video shows the full range of LMM firing options
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