Lightweight Multirole Missile – Martlet

The Thales Martlet is also called the Lightweight Multirole Missile, or LMM. It is described by Thales as;

LMM is a low cost, lightweight, precision strike, missile, which has been designed to be fired from tactical platforms including fixed or rotary winged UAV s and surface platforms. The system is designed to provide a rapid reaction to a wide range of the surface threats from wheeled or tracked vehicles, towed artillery or static installations; naval threats from small ships and fast inshore attack craft and an air threat from light aircraft.

In UK service, it will arm the Royal Navy Wildcat helicopter.

Martlet meets the Future Anti-Surface Guided Weapon (Light) requirement, FASGW(L)

LLM Martlet History

If Sea Skua was a response to missile-armed Soviet fast attack craft, Martlet is a response to the fast inshore attack craft (FIAC) threat as characterised by those operated by the Iranian Revolutionary Guard.

The Martlet missiles heritage goes back much further than that, though, and its origin is a surface to air missile, not an air to surface missile. Javelin replaced Blowpipe and Javelin-S15 (Starburst) replaced Javelin, which was then replaced by Starstreak HVM, much of the technology has evolved into the Martlet Lightweight Multirole Missile. Instead of developing aerodynamic data for a new missile design, Thales used data from Starburst as the starting point, a cost effective and wholly sensible approach.

LMM Starburst Comparison

2008 saw the FASGW(L) requirement emerge for the Royal Navy to  counter the fast inshore attack craft (FIAC) threat.

The paper ‘Iran’s Naval Forces – From Guerilla Warfare to a Modern Naval Strategy‘ published in 2009 by the US Office of Naval Intelligence was seen by many as the significant point for Western forces appreciation of the threat but the Royal Navy and others had already started work and defined a number of requirements, FASGW(L) being one of them. Helicopters would continue to provide force protection but instead of the longer range and larger systems like Sea Skua or Hellfire/Brimstone, a smaller missile was required with pinpoint accuracy that could be used in typically restrictive Rules of Engagement environments. The FN Herstal M3M 12.7mm HMG, BAE Q-SIGHT GRSS and DRS Thermal Weapon Sight were also introduced to improve force protection and provide an element of ‘graduated response’

Whilst the M3M and sighting improvements were relatively easy and quick to integrate the FASGW(L) would take longer. A number of alternatives were investigated including guided 70mm rockets but one of the significant issues with this approach was their lack of manoeuvrability against a rapidly moving target and the Semi-Active Laser (SAL) seeker typically used had issues with low reflectivity targets i.e. black rubber boats.

After starting negotiations in 2005, in 2009, the Air Defence Availability Project (ADAPT) saw the MoD, Thales and MBDA agree on an availability contract that would see HVM/Starstreak and Rapier FSC to its out of service date in 2020. This contract also included provision for a new fire control and target tracking system.

The Thales part of the contract was worth £200 million, MBDA, £156 million.

Concept work continued with FASGW(L) and it became clear that the Semi-Automatic Command Line of Sight (SACLOS) Starstreak missile would form an ideal candidate. The laser beam-riding guidance system is impossible to jam and works with low reflectivity targets.

In 2011, Thales issued a press release;

Thales UK and the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) have today announced an innovative approach to contracting under the principles of Team Complex Weapons (TCW). The two parties have agreed to ‘re-role’ previously contracted budgets to facilitate the full-scale development, series production and introduction of the Lightweight Multi-role Missile (LMM) into service for UK Armed Forces.

“This is a clear demonstration of MoD and industry working in partnership…”

Specific activities covered under this contract amendment include:- design, development and qualification of the laser beam rider version of LMM, production of an initial delivery quantity of 1,000 LMM, precision-guidance system that will deliver a highly accurate performance against static and mobile targets and with low-collateral damage

The multi-role aspects of LMM mean that the UK will have the ability to use a single family of weapons to take on a variety of roles, including: maritime role – LMM will be integrated as the Future Anti-Surface Guided Weapon Light FASGW(L) missile on the new Wildcat Lynx helicopter platform under a parallel programme with the UK MoD. Ground-to-ground role – the dual-effect warhead of LMM (blast fragmentation and shaped charge) makes it suitable for a wide range of ground targets including light/medium armour; air-launched role – the modular design of the missile permits the future development and introduction of alternative warheads, seekers including a semi-active laser (SAL) version for precision strike surface attack roles;

Speaking at the announcement, David Beatty, Managing Director of Thales UK’s Belfast facility, where LMM will be manufactured, said: “This is a clear demonstration of MoD and industry working in partnership to ensure that we deliver the products that our Armed Forces require in a timely and affordable manner.”

“This contract also helps broaden our UK design, development and manufacturing capabilities that specialise in lightweight and short-range missiles, such as our Starstreak and VT1 air defence products and the NLAW anti-armour weapon.”

“LMM is unique in that it’s the first lightweight weapon family to be specially designed to have a wide range of operational roles. We firmly believe that this is what Armed Forces require now and in the future as it not only can provide adaptability in the battlefield but also major benefits in whole life costs by having one weapon family with a highly cost-effective associated logistic support.”

“We have already conducted preliminary marketing of LMM and I can confirm that there is a very high level of interest in this new family of missiles. The main interest is coming from land, sea and air platform suppliers who are keen to have the lightweight, low cost and operational versatility that LMM can deliver. This contract shows Thales delivering the innovation intended by Team CW. ”

Alan Nicholl, Director Weapons at the MoD’s Defence Equipment and Support organisation, said: “This is an excellent example of the objectives of Team CW at work. Such an innovative approach taken by Thales and the MoD to lightweight modular weapons will enhance the UK complex weapons industrial capability with a family of products designed to meet the requirements of both the UK and this dynamic export market sector. It is an excellent example of the UK’s export led industrial policy in action.”

This was the MoD making a value judgement about funding priorities, by shifting money already committed to Starstreak/HVM, it was judging the threat to Royal Navy shipping of greater and a more imminent risk that ground-launched air defence threats against the British Army.

The MoD awarded a £90 million contract to Agusta Westland in 2014 to test, integrate and install both FASGW Light and Heavy missiles onto the Royal Navy’s 28 Wildcat helicopters.

Also in 2014, the £48 million Design and Manufacture contract for FASGW(L) LMM went to Thales, to complete development activity.

Thales Marlet LMM

In addition to the helicopter launched variant for the MoD, Thales have been actively exploring other options. LMM has been seen on various UAV’s and in 2014, a tripod launched variant was tested in the Ground to Ground role. Thales have also partnered with MSI and integrated a multiple round LMM launcher with the 30mm Bushmaster cannon, the Seahawk SIGMA. The Turkish defence manufacturer, Aseslan, also have a partnership agreement with Thales. They have created a number of different naval pedestal launchers for LMM.

In order to meet the requirement for a very small precision munition for arming tactical UAV’s, Thales initiated some work on a freefall version of LMM and has developed the concept, showing it at recent defence exhibitions light aircraft and UAVs. In another partnership arrangement, Textron is marketing freefall LMM as the Fury.

In July 2016, Leonardo Helicopters awarded a contract to General Dynamics to upgrade the Stores Management System on Wildcat to enable control of Martlet and Sea Venom.

The scope of the contract includes;

  • Develop new safety-critical software to control the complex MIL-STD-1760 missile interfaces.
  • Implement plug and play software architecture, which will significantly reduce the cost of integrating future weapons.
  • Introduce hardware design changes to the existing SMS design to support two additional weapon stations on the helicopter.
  • Design and manufacture a handheld test set to allow the helicopter electrical interfaces to be rapidly tested in conjunction with the SMS Built-in-Test capability.
  • Re-test and certify the overall SMS functionality in accordance with UK safety standards DEF-STAN 0055/56.
  • Update the existing in-service SMS equipment to the ‘FASGW’ standard.

Also in July 2016, the MoD announced financial support to MBDA and Leonardo to integrate Martlet and Sea Venom on legacy Lynx aircraft to enhance export opportunities.

Initial trials will commence in Q4 2016 with an in service target of 2018.

It was also recently announced that the British Army would integrate LMM with their Starstreak launch systems, namely the single cannister launcher, Lightweight Multiple Launcher (LML) and FV433 Stormer vehicle.

Thales will also integrate LMM with their Rapid Ranger vehicle mount and have proposed this for Warrior and Ajax.

LMM Martlet Capabilities and Options

Capabilities

The Lightweight Multirole Missile (LMM) is pretty much as described.

It weighs 13kg, 1.3m long and 76mm in diameter (wing span of 260mm). It flies at a maximum speed of Mach 1.5 and has a maximum range of 8km, minimum range is 400m, propelled by a two-stage rocket motor. The shaped charge fragmentation warhead weighs 3kg and is initiated by a laser proximity sensor in the nose.

Primary guidance utilises a laser beam riding system. The operator places the laser point on the target and sensors in the rear of the missile guide it in. A secondary semi-active laser homing facility is also available although it is not clear whether the version coming into service with the MoD will feature this guidance mode.

It is multi-role because it can be used in the air to ground role, as well as surface to surface and air to air. To reinforce its flexibility credentials, LMM can be launched from a variety of ground, sea and air vehicles and is also available in a freefall version.

For UK service, it will be contained in a multi-tube pylon assembly for Wildcat.

As Martlet/LMM has developed various iterations have been seen in images but the latest seems to show a row of three beneath a row of two, for a five missile per hardpoint arrangement. Although there are no plans for integration on Apache attack Helicopter it would provide a smaller warhead precision attack capability to bridge the gap between 30mm cannon and Hellfire/Brimstone. This would also provide Apache with a counter UAS weapon.

Using powered LMM in the air to air role is a development of the various studies and development programmes that saw it arming Apache helicopters. One of the roles being focussed on now is that of Counter-UAS. The LMM is much lower cost than a traditional air to air missile and using the laser beam-riding guidance system reduces the impact of any countermeasures.

Arming an unmanned aircraft with LMM and a stabilised laser designation system will allow an unmanned aircraft to attack and destroy another unmanned aircraft.

Maritime

For maritime applications, Thales have partnered with MSI and Aseslan in Turkey.

MSI have demonstrated a 7 missile launcher on their Seahawk SIGMA mount, a similar mount to that widely found on Royal Navy vessels, the Automated Small Calibre Gun (ASG). The LMM missiles would be used outside the range of the 30mm cannon or in situations where a guided weapon was deemed to provide the better option for target destruction.

Aseslan has developed the Missile Launching System (MSL) that carries four or eight LMM in a stabilised mount complete with electro-optical sighting system.

The maritime launcher from ASESLAN has now completed all qualification firings.

Freefall

Although Thales completed much of the initial development work on Freefall LMM, their partnership with Textron has allowed them to integrate the Textron tri-mode fuse (point, airburst, and delay) and GPS/INS guidance module.

The 6kg, 680mm long freefall LMM, marketed as Fury by Textron, is a very small guided munition that allows ISTAR focussed lightweight RPAS and aircraft to carry offensive capability, thus allowing them to attack fleeting targets of opportunity, light vehicles or mortar/rocket firing positions for example. Freefall munitions also provide a wider engagement envelope than forward firing types, to the side or behind for example.

A single standard weapon rail can carry three Freefall LMM in a low drag tandem mounting although other configurations have also been shown, 2×3 for example.

From 10,000ft, it reportedly has a range of between 4 and 5km.

Freefall LMM/Fury is typically used against soft skinned vehicles and similar targets and Textron have indicated up to 24 could be carried on a Reaper UAS.

Ground Launched

In the ground launch role, LMM can make use of any of the launching systems used for the Starstreak High-Velocity Missile. Thales have demonstrated firing an LMM from the Stormer HVM system, Thor, and later Rapid Ranger launch turrets equipped with an Ultra Electronics servo system. Thor became the Multi Mission System.

Although the UK has not formally expressed any interest in the ground launched role the emerging small UAS threat may yet see that change. The smaller Rapid Ranger launch system is small and light enough to be mounted on 4×4 type vehicles. Although the LMM does not pack the same punch as the larger Javelin/Hellfire/Brimstone it is relatively cheap and with the smaller warhead, better suited to some targets, a sniper team in a built up area for example.

LMM can also be fired from the Lightweight Multiple Launcher

rapidranger650

Future Weapons: Starstreak THOR

LMM is self evidently a flexible and versatile weapon.

To wrap up, this video shows the full range of LMM firing options

Thales UK missiles

 

 

 

 

Table of Contents

RN TLAM 4 Introduction
MBDA Brimstone layout on Tornado Brimstone
MBDA SPEAR 3 Image 2 SPEAR Capability 3
RAF Tornado GR4's at RAF Akrotiri Cyprus being armed with the Paveway IV Laser Guided Bomb. Paveway IV
Tornado Storm Shadow Storm Shadow
Royal Navy Submarine HMS Astute Fires a Tomahawk Cruise Missile (TLAM) During Testing Near the USA Tomahawk
FASGW(H) Missile Sea Venom
Lightweight Multirole Missile (LMM) Martlet (Lightweight Multirole Missile)
HMS Montrose fires Harpoon Harpoon
F-35 UK Weapons Trials November 2014 ASRAAM & PAVEWAY IV shot 2 ASRAAM
RAF Typhoon Aircraft Carrying Meteor Missiles Meteor BVRAAM
Soldier Mans Starstreak HVM High Velocity Missile System During Exercise Olympic Guardian for London 2012 Starstreak HVM
Sea Ceptor missile system FLAADS(M) Common Anti-Air Modular Missile (CAMM)
Sea Viper HMS Defender Type 45 Live Fire Sea Viper/ASTER
Fire Shadow Loitering Munition Fire Shadow Loitering Munition
The final pre-acceptance trial of the GMLRS (Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System) at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, USA. Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System (GMLRS)
Spike NLOS Tracked Vehicle Exactor (SPIKE NLOS)
Pictured are elements of the Manoeuvre Support Group MSG from 42 Commando Royal Marines, based at Bickleigh Barracks Plymouth, whilst conducting live firing of the new Light Forces Anti-Tank Guided Weapon (LFATGW) Javelin. 42 Commando Royal Marines were the first UK Armed Force to live fire the new Javelin system. The live fire demonstration was an early opportunity to see the Javelin being live fired in the UK. The future reliance on simulation,rather than live firing will mean that a demonstration such as this will be a rare event in the UK during the service life of the system. This image was submitted as part of the Peregrine 06 Photographic Competition. This image is available for non-commercial, high resolution download at www.defenceimages.mod.uk subject to terms and conditions. Search for image number 45145988.jpg ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Photographer: PO (PHOT) Sean Clee Image 45145988.jpg from www.defenceimages.mod.uk Javelin Anti-Tank Guided Weapon (ATGW)
NLAW Training Aid Next Generation Light Anti-Armour Weapon (NLAW)
Raytheon Defender Laser CIWS Lasers

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10 Comments on "Lightweight Multirole Missile – Martlet"

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Brian Black

The Americans are going to put their APKWS air-to-surface guided rockets onto Apache and F35 (it is already on the Marine Corps Harriers).

Any idea whether the UK will buy into that system for the same platforms, or if we’ll use our own LMM for a similar capability?

Rudeboy

Brian
It seems that the UK is going to go with LMM to fill that role. Which is understandable, but at the same time a pity because the CRV7 rocket used by the UK is far superior to the Hydra as a munition to be used as a base. In a wish list ideal world we’d get Fury, LMM, CRV7 with APKWS, Brimstone and Sea Venom integrated on our helicopters (with Starstreak as well). The problem would be then what missile to carry on a mission…..too much choice.
I think ultimately the way to look at it is that we are gaining a very useful capability that we haven’t had before, LMM in many ways is more useful (if more expensive than APKWS) with its soft launch and ability to be carried by a wide variety of platforms that we already possess and train on. I’d rather see the money go on additional platforms/integration of LMM/Fury than on another munition type. The Army seem covered with Stormer HVM and Pedestal/shoulder launch, the RAF should get Fury on Watchkeeper/Protector as a low yield weapon and the RN need to double down on their investment with Seahawk Sigma. If they did all that (which they probably won’t) it might then be worth examining APKWS.

Rudeboy

TD
Really appreciate the work that has gone into this. And the pressure of doing this for an audience who have been awaiting it with baited breath. Just to let you know that under the heading ‘LMM Martlet History’ the first two paras are repeated directly below. I’m pretty sure you’d pick it up, but I’m conscious of just how much work is going into this.

Donald_of_Tokyo

If LMM is compatible in StarStreak HVM system, vice versa also works?
In other words, Wildcat also can carry StarStreak? Sea Hawk sigma can also be equipped with StarStreak?

Rudeboy

Donald_of_Tokyo
I’ve seen it mentioned before that they are interchangeable. They use (at present) the same guidance method.

HMArmedForcesReview

Any possibility of this going on Apache since those attack helicopters will launch from the carriers?

The Other Chris

Any indication of whether it can be carried supersonically on a wing pylon? Given how many CRV7’s we used in Afghanistan and that those weapons will not be integrated onto Tornado or Typhoon, would we be losing a weapons capability?

F-16 undergoing APKWS test firing:

comment image

USMC AV-8B undergoing APKWS integration at China Lake, California:

comment image

There must surely be a demand for smaller, cheaper precision weapons, especially for hitting pickup trucks in the desert. As you say CRV7 had a lot of use, perhaps we could replicate that through LLM.

Just by the look of the LLM launcher, its doesn’t look like a system that is designed to be robust at high speed and under high G loads, however the free fall launcher looks much more familiar, and perhaps better suited to jets.

From high speed and altitude the free fall variant would be well suited to hitting the low value targets, with low collateral damage, which would seem particularly well suited to the hybrid conflicts we are part of. We could carry a lot of them, and it is much more cost effective than using a brimstone which is worth the value of 100 pick up trucks!

Chris Werb

Notwithstanding the advantages of soft launch, pre-existing launchers and interoperability with Starstreak, does this system have any other advantages vs DAGR or APKW-II. I would still like to see guided 70mm rockets on our AH-64E and would be genuinely surprised if that didn’t happen at some stage.

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